Globally, IC engine (petrol &diesel) vehicle creates air pollution and it produces heat which includes hazardous gases such as nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, benzene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. Air pollution can aggravate the
medical conditions of individuals with asthma and emphysema. Long-term health effects include chronic respiratory disease, lung cancer, heart disease, and even damage to the brain, nerves, liver, or kidneys..
Ecosystems are impacted by air pollution, particularly sulphur and nitrogen emissions, and ground-level ozone as it affects their ability to function and grow. Emissions of both sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides deposit
in water, on vegetation and on soils as “acid rain”, thereby increasing their acidity with adverse effects on flora and fauna. Ultimately, acidification affects the ability of ecosystems to provide “ecosystem services”,
such as for example nutrient cycling and carbon cycling, but also water provision, on which the planet and human life is dependent..
Increased ground-level ozone also causes damage to cell membranes on plants inhibiting key processes required for their growth and development. The loss of plant cover affects us all. Trees and other vegetation absorb pollutants such as excessive nitrogen
dioxide, ozone and particulate matter, through their leaves and needles and thereby help to improve air quality. Less plant cover thus means less filtering capacity to clean our air.. Eutrophication, the process
of accumulation of nutrients, including nitrogen, in water bodies, often results from air pollution. Nutrient overloads in aquatic ecosystems can cause algae blooms and ultimately a loss of oxygen, and of life.
As ecosystems are impacted, so is the biological diversity.
Even worse, ultimately human populations are also affected. Harmful concentrations of pollutants may directly enter our drinking water, notably through ground water seepage. Equally, water quality may be deteriorated as air pollution negatively affects
vegetation which helps to naturally filter our water systems. Affected vegetation also has negative consequences on another important ecosystem service: that of capturing carbon and thereby reducing the impacts
of climate change.